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National Archive Archives nationales 
of Canada du Canada 












Author of Various Philatelic Books 


Price 25 Cents 

.Publishers l[ekeel's II'eekly Slaml A'ews 


('hapter I--Its Postal History 

('hapte r 

[I--A Postmaster's Provisional 
Ill--The First Issue 
1V--The Second Issue 
V--The Perforated Pence Stamps 
VI--The First "Cents" Issue 
VII--The First l)ominion Issue 
VIII--The lc Orange of 1869 
IX--The Large 5c Stamp 
X--The Small "Cents" Stamps 
XI--The 20c and 50c Stamps of 1893 - 
Xll--The 8c Stamp of 1893 - 
Xlll--The Diamond .lubilee Issue 
XIV--The "Maple Leaf" Issue of 1897 
XV--The "Numeral" Issue of 1898 
XV[--The '"Map" Stamp of 1898 
XV[I--The "2 Cents'" Provisionals 
XV[II--The Bi-sected Provisionals 
XIX--The 2c Carmine - 
XX--The 20c Value of 1900 - 
XXI--The Queen Victoria Seven Cents 
XXII--The King Edward Issue 
XXIII--The Quebec Tercentenary Issue 
XXIV--King George Stamps 
XXV--The War Tax Stamps 
XXVI--A Proposed Commemorative Series 
XXVII--Official Stamps 
XXVIII--The Special Delivery Stamp 
XXIX--The Registration Stamps 
XXX--The Postage Due Stamps - 
XXXI--The "Officially Sealed" Labels 





Canada was originally the French col- 
ony of New France, which comprised the 
range of territory as far west as the 
Mississippi, including the Great Lakes. 
After the war of independence it was 
confined to what are uow the provinces 
of Quebec and Ontario--then known as 
Upper and Lower Canada. At the con- 
federation (1867) it included only these 
two provinces, with New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia; and since then it has been 
extended by purchase (1870), by acces- 
sion of other provinces (British Colum- 
bia iu 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 
1873), and by im0erial order in council 
(1880), until it includes all the north 
American continent north of United 
States territory, with the exception of 
Alaska and a strip of the Labrador 
coast administered by Newfoundland, 
which still remains outside the Do- 
minion of Canada. On the Atlantic the 
chief indentations which break its shores 
are the Bay of Fundy (remarkable for 
its tides), the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and 
Hudson Bay (a huge expanse of water 
with an area of about 350,000 square 
miles); and the Pacific coast, which is 
small relatively, is remarkably broken up 
by fjord-like indentations. Off the 
coast are many islands, some of them 
of considerable magnitude,--Prince Ed- 
ward Is., Cape Breton Is., and Anticosti 
being the most considerable on the At- 
lantic side, Vancouver and Queen Char- 
lotte Is. on the Pacific; and in the ex- 
treme north is the immense Arctic archi- 
pelago, bound in perpetual ice. 
The surface of the country east of the 
great lakes is diversified, but character- 
ised by no outstanding features. Two 
ranges of hills skirt the St. Lawrence-- 
that on the north, the Laurentians, 
stretching 3,50,0 miles from Lake Su- 
perior to the Atlantic, while the south- 
ern range culminates in the bold capes 
and cliffs of Gasp6. The St. Lawrence 
and its tributaries form the dominating 
physical, feature in this section, the 
other rvers being the St. John, the 

Miralnichi, and the Restigouche in New 
Brunswick. Eastern Canada is practi- 
cally the Canadian part of the St. Law- 
rence valley, (330,000 square miles), aud 
the great physical feature is the system 
of lakes with an area of 90,000 square 
riffles. In additiou to the tributaries of 
the St. Lawrence already mentioned, the 
Dominion boasts the Fraser, the Thomp- 
son, and the greater part of the Colum- 
bia River in British Columbia; the Atha- 
basca and Peace Rivers, wlfich flow into 
Lake Athabasca, and out of it as the 
Slave River, which in its turn issues 
from the Great Slave Lake and flows 
into the Arctic Ocean as the Mackenzie 
River (total length 2,800 miles); the 
Albany and the Churchill, flowing into 
Hudson Bay; and the Nelson, which dis- 
charges from Lake Winnipeg into Hud- 
son Bay the united waters of the Assini- 
boine, the Saskatchewan, the Red River 
and the Winnipeg. 
West of the Great Lakes the scenery 
is less varied. From the lakes to the 
Rockies stretches a vast level plain of a 
prairie character, slowly rising from 800 
feet at the east end to 3,000 feet at the 
foothills of the Rockies. 
The eastern and western portions of 
the Dominion are heavily wooded, and 
comparatively little inroad has been 
made on the forest wealth of the coun- 
try. It is estimated that there are 
1,200,000 square miles of woodland and 
forest, chiefly spruce and pine, including 
about a hundred varieties; consequently 
the industries connected with the forest 
are of great importance, especially since 
the development of the pulp industry. 
The central prairie plain is almost de- 
void of forest. Agriculture is the domi- 
nant industry in Canada, not only in 
the great fertile plains of the centre, but 
also on the lands which have been 
cleared of forest and settled in other 
parts of the Dominion. 
The Cauadian climate is cold in winter 
and warm in summer, but healthy all the 
year round. With all its extremes of 

cold it oermits of the cultivation in the 
pen air of grapes, peaches, tobacco, to- 
matoes, and corn. The snow is an es- 
sential coudition of the prosperity of 
the timber industry, the means of trans- 
port iu winter, the protector of the soil 
from frost, and the source of endless en- 
joyment in outdoor sports. 
The French Canadians are almost ex- 
clusively the descendants of the French 
iu Canada in 1763, there being practically 
no immigration from France. The French 
language is by statute, not by treaty, an 
official language in the Dominion Parlia- 
ment aud in Quebec, but not now in any 
other province, though documents, etc., 
may for convenience be published in it. 
English is understood ahnost every- 
where except in the rural parts of Que- 
bec, where the habitants speak a patois 
which has preserved mauy of the char- 
acteristics of 17th century French. 
The Indian people, nnmbcriug a little 
over 108,000 in 19112, are scattered 
throughout the Domiuion. They are 
usually located on reserves, where 
efforts, not very successful, are made to 
interest them in agriculture and indus- 
try. Many of them still follow their 
ncestral occupations of hunting and 
fishing, and they are much sought after 
as guides in the sporting centres. The 
Dominion govermnent exercises a good 
deal of parental care over them and for 
them; but the race is stationary, if not 
The constitution of Canada is of a 
federal character, midway betweeu the 
British aud United States constitutions. 
The federated provinces retain their lo- 
cal legislatures. The Federal Parliament 
closely follovs the British model, and 
the cabinet is responsible to the House 
of Commons. The members of the Sen- 
ate are appointed by the governor- 
general in council, and retain their seats 
for life, and each group of provinces is 
entitled to so many senators. The nmn- 
hers of the commons vary according to 
the population. The local legislatures 
generally consist of one house, though 
Quebec and Nova Scotia still retain their 
.upper houses. The Federal Parliament 
s quinquennial, the local legislatures 
quadrennial. The lieutenant-governors 
o the provinces are appointed by the 
governor-general in council. The ov- 
ernor-general (atpointed by the King, 
though paid by Canada) has a right to 
disallow or reserve bills for imperial 
consent; but the veto is seldom exer- 
cised, though the imperial authorities 
practically disallowed temporarily the 
preferential clauses of 1897. The Con- 
stitution of Canada can be altered only 

by Imperial Parliament, but for all prac- 
tical purposes Canada has complete self- 
In 1534, Jacques Cartier landed on the 
Gasp coast of Quebec, of which he took 
possession in the name of Francis I, 
King of France. But nothing was done 
towards permanent occupation and 
settlement until 1608, when Samuel de 
.Champlain, who had visited the country 
m 1603 and 1604, founded the city of 
Quebec. lkleantime French settlements 
were made in what is now the maritime 
provinces, but known to the French as 
Acadia. France claimed, as a result of 
this settlement, exclusive control of th.e 
whole immense region from Acadia west 
to Lake Superior, and down the Missis- 
sippi to the Gulf of Mexico. But the 
control of this region was not uncon- 
tested. England claimed it by right of 
prior discovery, based mainly on the 
discovery of Newfoundland in 1497 by 
John Cabot. 
In the north the charter granted in 
1670 by Charles II to Prince Rupert to 
found the Hudson's Bay Company, with 
exclusive rights of trading in the Hud- 
son Bay basin, was maintained till 1869, 
when, on a payment of $1,500,000, their 
territory was transferred to the newly 
created Dominion of Canada. A long 
struggle was carried on between Eng- 
land and France for the dominion of the 
North American continent, which ended 
in the cession of Acadia by the treaty 
of Utrecht in 1713, and the cession of 
Canada by the treaty of Paris in 1763. 
Of all its Canadian dependency France 
retained onlv the Islands of St. Pierre 
and Miquel6n, off the coast of New- 
foundland, and the vexatious French- 
shore rights. 
During the war of American Inde- 
pendence Canada was invaded by the 
Americans, and the end of the var saw 
a great influx of loyalists from the 
United States, and the formation of two 
uew colonies--New Brunswick and Up- 
per Canada (noxv Ontario). The treaty 
of peace in 1783 took away from Canada 
territory now included within Minneso- 
ta, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and 
Wisconsin. In 1791, owing to differ- 
ences of race, Upper Canada was separ- 
ated from Lower Canada; but discon- 
tent resulted in rebellion in 1837-8 which 
occasioned Lord Durham's mission and 
report. The results of that were the 
granting of responsible government to 
the colonists, and in 1840 the re-union 
of the two provinces. But the different 
elements, British and French Canadians, 
worked no better together than they had 
done while separated; and in 1867, as 

CnATa II.--A Postmaster's Provisional. 

Postage stamps were first placed on 
sale to the public in Canada on April 
g3rd, 1851, as we shall show later, but, 
according to an interesting article which 
appeared in the London Philatelist for 
June, 1904, it seems possible that at least 
one postmaster anticipated events slight- 
ly by issuing a stamped envelope of his 
own shortly before the regular govern- 
mental stamps were ready. It will per- 
haps simplify matters to reproduce the 
article in its original form, ViZ.:-- 
OF 1851. 
We are indebted to Mr. E. B. Green- 
shields, of Montreal, for the following 
very interesting information :- 
The following facts may be of in- 
terest to collectors of the stamps of 
British North America. Some time 
ago a cover was offered to me, which 
seemed to me to be absolutely genuine, 
yet I had never, up to that time, heard 
of such envelopes being in existence. 
This letter was posted in NewCarlisle, 
Gaspe, Lower Canada, on April 7th, 
1851, and was stamped "Three Pence" 
in two lines, inside a square, with a 
black border of neat design around 
the sides. Across this was written, 
"Letter R. W. Kelly Apl. 1851". 
The letter was addressed to Toronto, 
C. W., and on the other side was 
stamped the date the letter was re- 
ceived, "Apl. 16 1851". I sent the 
envelope to Mr. Donald A. King, of 
Halifax, and received the following 
reply from him:- 
HALIFAX, N. S., February 22nd, 1904. 
"Dear Sir,--I have yours of 19th 
inst. with cover, and am much obliged 
for your kindness in permitting me to 
have alook at it. It is new to me. I 
have no doubt it is absolutely genuine, 
and probably was made by the Post- 
master at New Carlisle to save trouble 
in stamping the letter '3d' as was then 
the custom. It is just possible that the 
writer (whose name appears to be en- 
dorsed on the envelope) was the Post- 
master there. A reference to the Post- 
master-General's report for that year 
would give his name. As far as my 
memory serves me, the Canadian 
stamps were not then in issue, though 
an advance circular may have been 
sent out. I have shown the cover to 
a friend of mine who is an expert in 
typography, and he assures me that 
the printing is as old as dated, and 
that such type and border could not 

be procured now at any cost. The 
only thing that I have seen that re- 
sembles it in any way was a cover 
from Prince Edward Island, prepaid 
with a square of white paper stamped 
3d and cancelled. This was an adhe- 
sive, and used some years after stamps 
were in use. As in your. case, it had 
been recognised as paying 
As to the value of your cover, it is 
impossible for me to say, but very 
considerable to any collector of British 
North America. 
Yours faithfully, 
Following up the clue given to me 
by Mr. King, I wrote to the Post 
Office Department at Ottawa, and re- 
ceived the following courteous an- 
swer :- 
OTTAWA, 2rid March, 1904. 
"Sir,--I am directed to acknowledge 
receipt of your communication of the 
26th ultimo, inquiring whether R. W. 
Kelly was Postmaster of New Car- 
lisle, Co. Gaspe, Quebec, in 1851, and 
in reply am directed to inform you 
that R. W. Kelly, doubtless the same 
man., was Postmaster of New Car- 
lisle in 1851. Owing to the incomplete- 
ness of the early records of the 
department, which was then under the 
direction of the British Office, the date 
of Mr. Kelly's appointment cannot be 
ascertained. He appears to have been 
Postmaster from 1851, however, until 
his resignation on the 9th April, 1855. 
As regards your inquiry as to 
whether postage stamps were used on 
the 7th April, 1851, and your state- 
ment that you have an envelope sent 
on that date from New Carlisle to 
Toronto with 'Three Pence' printed on 
it, inside a fancy bordcr, I have to 
say that postage stamps were issued to 
the public for the first time on the 
23rd April, 1851, and that stamped en- 
velopes were not issued until some 
years later. The stamped envelope to 
which you refer may have been an 
envelope so stamped on the prepay- 
ment in the New Carlisle Post Office. 
of three pence, the required charge for 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
WILLIA SMITH, Secretary." 
It will be noted from the conclusion 
of this letter that, according to the 
department at Ottawa, one might in- 
fer that the use of such a stamp would 
not be irregular. This is confirmed by 

the following extract from a reply to 
a letter a friend of mine wrote to 
Ottawa at my request :- 
OTTAWA, March 2nd, 1904. 
-"I took those questions of Mr. 
Green.shields over to Mr.  of the 
Post Office Department. He tells me 
that before the first issue of stamps, 
which took place on the 23rd of April, 
1851, each Postmaster had a steel 
stamp which he used to mark the 
amount prepaid on the letter. These 
stamps were of different patterns, and 
it is probably the impression of one of 
them that appears on Mr. Green- 
shield's envelope. In some of the 
smaller post-offices they continued to 
use these stamps as late as 1875. 
It is rather a singular coincidence 
that if the inquiry had been, regard- 
ing the position of Postmaster, more 
than one day earlier, the Canadian 
records would not have shown 
whether the man named had held 
office or not, the reason being that it 
was on the 6th of April, 1851, that the 
Post Office Department was trans- 
ferred from the Imperial Government, 
and all records prior to that date are 
in the possession of the Imperial au- 

It seems strange that more of these 
covers have not been found. Such 
well-known authorities on the stamps 
of British North America as Mr. 
Lachlan Gibb and Mr. William Patter- 
son, of Montreal, and Mr. Donald A. 
King, of Halifax. had not seen any 
until I consulted them about this one. 
I think it is very interesting to hear 
of a stamped envelope like this being 
used by the Post Office just before the 
issue of postage stamps. 
So far as we have been able to find 
out the above constitutes all that has 
been published regarding this envelope. 
We can find no further mention of it in 
the columns of the London Philatclist 
or of any other journal published since 
1904 nor does Mr. Howes so much as 
refer to it in his recently published 
monograph on Canada's postal issues. 
Yet, on the face of it, the matter seems 
one worthy of extended investigation by 
some Canada specialist or other. Its 
history, as given above, is similar in 
many respects to the history of many of 
the much sought after Postmaster's pro- 
visional stamps of the United States and 
there is a possibility that this envelope 
may represent a legitimate postmaster's 

CHAPTER III.--Thc First Issue. 

In common with the other Colonies 
of British North America Canada was 
granted the privilege of administrating 
its own postal service in 1850, and in 
the same year an Act was passed pro- 
viding for the change. It is hardly 
necessary to quote this Act in full 
though the following extracts are of 
interest :- 
CAr. VII. 
An Act to provide for the transfer 
of the management of the Inland Posts 
to the Provincial Government, and for 
the Regulation of the said department. 
II.--And be it enacted, that the In- 
land Posts and Post Communications 
in this Province shall, so far as may 
be consistent with the Acts of the Par- 
liament of the United Kingdom in 
force in this Province, be exclusively 
under Provincial management and 
control; the revenues arising from the 
duties and postage dues receivable by 
the officers employed in managing such 
Posts and Post Communications shall 
form part of the Provincial Revenue, 
unless such monies belong of right to 

the United Kingdom, or to some other 
Colony, or to some Foreign State, and 
the expenses of management shall be 
defrayed out of Provincial Funds, and 
that the Act passed in the Eighth year 
of Her Majesty's Reign, and entitled 
An Act to provide for the manage- 
ment of the Customs, and of matter 
relative to the collection of the Pro- 
vincial Revenue, shall apply to the said 
Posts and Post Communications, and 
to the officers and persons employed in 
managing the same, or in collecting or 
accounting for the duties and dues 
aforesaid, except in so far as any pro- 
vision of the said Act may be insus- 
ceptible of such application, or may be 
inconsistent with any provision of this 
VIII.--And in conformity to the 
agreement made as aforesaid between 
the Local Governments of the several 
Colonies of British North America, be 
it enacted that the Provincial Postage 
on letters and packets not being news- 
papers, printed pamphlets, magazines 
or books, entitled to pass at a lower 
rate, shall not exceed Threepence cur- 


i. e. Queen Victoria). In each of the 
angles is a large uncolored numeral "3". 
Mr. Howes tells us that this stamp was 

designed by Sir Stanford Fleming, a 
civil engineer and draughtsman. 
The beaver, depicted on this stamp, 
rejoices in the scientific name of Castor 
fiber. It is a rodent of social habits and 
was at one time widely distributed over 
Europe and North America. It is now 
practically extinct except in Canada and 
even there it is said to be in great dan- 
ger of extermination. Full-grown ani- 
mals vary in length from thirty to thirty- 
six inches. They are covered with short, 
thick fur, which is of considerable value 
and their structural peculiarities are 
well worth noting. The beaver is fur- 
nished with powerful incisor teeth, with 
which it is able to bite through fairly 
large trees, and its fore paws are very 
strong. Its hind feet are webbed, so 
that it is a powerful swimmer, and its 
tail is flattened, and serves as an excel- 
lent rudder. Its ears are small and 
when laid back prevent any water en- 
tering them. Beavers generally live in 
colonies, and show remarkable intelli- 
gence and ingenuity in the construction 
of their homes or "lodges" and in the 
building of dams, where water in the 
vicinity of their dwellings has become 
too shallow to suit their tastes. These 
dwellings are often constructed on the 
banks of rivers, but the Canadian beaver 
is particularly fond of building lodges in 
the centre of large expanses of fairly 
shallow water. These are made of turf, 
tree-trunks, and other materials, and are 
often used as store houses for food re- 
serves, as well as for living in. 
The 6d stamp follows the usual up- 
right rectangular form and its central 
design consists of the portrait of Prince 
Albert, the Royal Consort. The por- 
trait is enclosed within an ulSright oval 
inscribed in a similar manner to the 3d 
but with, of course, "SIXPENCE" on 
its lower portion. The numeral "6" is 
shown in each of the four angles. Al- 
bert Francis Charles Augustus Emanuel 
the younger of the two sons of Ernest, 
Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, was born 
in 1819. He was carefully educated at 
Brussels and Bonn (1836-8), where he 

showed himself an ardent student, ac- 
quired many accomplishments, and de- 
veloped a taste for music and the fine 
arts. King Leopold and Baron Stock- 
mar had long contemplated an alliance 
between Prince Albert and Princess 
Victoria, and the pair were brought to- 
gether in 1836. When the succession of 
Victoria was assured the betrothal took 
place, and on February 19th, 1840, the 
marriage, which was one of real affec- 
tion on both sides, was solemnized in 
the Chapel Royal, St. James Palace. 
The Prince Consort's position as the 
husband of a constitutional sovereign 
was difficult, and in the early years of 
his married life his interference in mat- 
ters of state was resented. Ultimately 
he became "a sort of minister, without 
portfolio, of art and education", and in 
this capacity won much esteem and popu- 
larity. He also interested himself in 
agriculture and in social and industrial 
reform. To him was due the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, which resulted in a 
balance of a million dollars available 
for the encouragement of science and 
art. His personal character was very 
high, and he exercised great influence on 
his children. He was an ideal consort, 
and entirely worthy of the title "Albert, 
the Good". On December 14th, 1861, 
he succumbed to an attack of fever, and 
was buried in St. George's Chapel, 
Windsor. His remains were afterwards 
removed to the mausoleum at Frogmore. 

The lod stamp is very similar in de- 
sign to the 6d denomination but bears 
the portrait of Queen Victoria. The 
life and reign of Queen Victoria are 
matters of such general knowledge that 
biographical details are hardly neces- 
sary. A few words, however, regarding 
the source of this handsome portrait, 
which was used to adorn so many of 
the earlier British Colonial stamps, will 
not be amiss. Mr. Howes tells us that 
this portrait "was taken from the fuI1 
length painting by Alfred Edward 
Chalon, R. A., which was ordered bv 
the Queen for her mother, the Duchess 
of Kent, as a souvenir of Her Majesty's 
first visit to the House of Lords. The 


certain as there are no official records 
relating to this though, as a supply was 
received on May 2nd, they were doubt- 
less issued some time during the same 
month. The 12d was issued on June 14tb 
as we shall show later. 
The three values of this series, as well 
as other denominations in pence issued 
later, were withdrawn from use on July 
1st, 1859, when decimal currency was 
introduced. By means of much diligent 
search through Post Office Reports and 
other records Mr. Howes has deter- 
mined that a total of 3,528,700 3d 
stamps were issued and a total of 
402.900 of the 6d value. Some of both 
these values were issued with perfora- 
tion late in 1857 or early in 1858. Un- 
fortunately there is no means of sepa- 
rating these from the imperforate ones 
as shown by the official figures but if we 
use the somewhat rough-and-ready 
means of reckoning afforded by cata- 
logue quotations it would seem that of 
the above totals about three million of 
the 3d and 325,0oo of the 6d were 
The 12d value, as every collector 
knows, is a very rare stamp. Even had 
the full supply of 51,000 stamps, re- 
ceived in the first and only consignment 
from the manufacturers on May 4th, 
1851, been issued, it would have been a 
rare variety, but as a matter of fact, 
the greater portion of the consignment 
was destroyed and only 1510 were ac- 
tually issued. An interesting article 
published in the Metropolitan Phila- 
telist in 1902 shows that this denomina- 
tion was first issued on June 14th, 1851, 
and supplies were made to various post 
offices as follows :-- 

No. Stamps 
June 14th, 1851, Hamilton, 300 
Oct. 17th, 1851, Chippewa, 100 
Nov. 13tb, 1851, Thorold, 20 
Nov. 25th, 1851, Toronto, 200 
Mar. 8th, 185, o, Montreal, 200 
Sept. 14th, 1852, Ingersoll, 100 

Apr. 5th, 1853, Ottawa (then known 
as Bytown), 100 
Oct. 20th, 1853, Sherbrooke, 15 
Jan. 13th, 1854, Smith's Falls, 50 
Jan. 20th, 1854, Ottawa, 100 
Feb. 8th, 1854, L'Islet, 15 
Feb. 27th, 1854, Ingersoll, 20 
Mar. 22nd, 18.54, Sault S. Marie, 25 
May 15th, 1854, Port. du Fort, 15 
Oct. 21st, 1854, Rowan Mills, 50 
Oct. 26th, 1854, Melbourne, 50 
Oct. 27th, 1854, Montreal. 100 
Dec. 4th, 1854, Smith's Falls, 50 
Total stamps, 1,510 
The consignment sent to Smith's 
Falls on December 4th, 1854, was the 

last distributed. While we can trace no 
official notice referring to the discon- 
tinuance of this denomination, or the 
actual date at which it ceased to be 
used, the writer of the article referred 
to above says that the balance of 49,490 
stamps were destroyed on May 1st, 1857, 
"in accordance with the practice of the 
Department in cases of the discontinu- 
ance of stamps" though as this was the 
first Canadian stamp to be discontinued, 
a precedent could hardly have been es- 
The following interesting excerpt 
from the Stamp Collectors" Magazine 
for April, 1870, states that the 12d value 
was discontinued in 1855 and it also 
lays considerable stress on the scarcity 
of used specimens of this stamp, viz:-- 
One of our readers observing from 
a reply we made to a correspondent 
in the last October number, that we 
were in doubt as to whether the 12d 
was ever actually used, has been good 
enough to write the Deputy Post- 
master-General on the subject and has 
obtained from him the following 
reply :-- 
"Ow, 28th October, 1869. 
DAR SXR :--In reply to your note of 
the 26th inst., let me say that the 
twelve penny postage stamps were is- 
sued to the public in 1851, but did not 
find favor, and so few were sold-- 
only a fev hundred altogether in 
three or four years--that they ceased 
to be issued in 1855. 
I am, dear Sir, yours very faithfully, 
W. A. 
This is satisfactorily conclusive as 
to the emission of the stamp in ques- 
tion; but if even only a few hundreds 
were used, we are surprised that no 
used copies turn up. Were they used 
otherwise than for postage? Mr. 
Philbrick informs us that no unused 
copy of the stamp was ever seen by 
him, nor does he know of its exist- 
ence. Plenty of proofs on India paper, 
etc., exist, but the paper of the stamp 
was laid and thin, of a hard texture. 
An extract from the Stamp Collectors" 
Monthly Gazette, published at St. John, 
New ]runswick, in September, 1869, 
shows that the rarity of the 12d was al-" 
ready recognised as witnessed by the 
fact that "even $5" could be obtained 
for a specimen. We give the paragraph 
in full :- 
This stamp, as some of our readers 
are aware, was in use but a short 
time, so short, that many persons, 
even those residing in Canada, knew 
nothing about it. One gentleman liv- 


ing in Quebec, to whom we had writ- 
ten on the subject some time ago, in- 
formed us that we must have been 
laboring under some mistake, when 
we asked him for some particulars 
about it. He told us that no such 
stamp was ever issued; but a subse- 
quent letter from him told a totally 
different tale (as was expected)--he 
gave us a few facts, and that was all 
we wanted. It was first intended for 
postage to England, and was actually 
used for a time. The postage was 
afterwards reduced and the 10d stamp 
took the place of the 12d. The latter 
is now (the genuine) one of the rarest 
in existence, and very readily obtains 
such prices as $4.00 and even $5.00 
for one specimen. Proofs are often 
offered for sale on India paper, with 
the word 'specimen' written on one 
side. Amateur collections must con- 
tent themselves with this last, for it is 
utterly impossible to obtain the real 
Simon Pure article for less than the 
stuns we name, and even then, it is 
doubtful whether it can be had at the 
price or not. The color of the gen- 
uine stamp is black, it is an adhesive, 
and contains a portrait of Queen Vic- 
toria in an inscribed oval, with figures 
12 at corners. 
All three values of this first set were 
issued imperforate and while the 3d, of 
vhich at least three millions were is- 
sued, varies but little in shade, the 6d, 
printed in comparatively small quan- 
tities, provides a number of striking 
tints. In his check-list, Mr. Howes 
gives "black-violet, deep-violet, slate- 
violet, brown-violet, dull purple, slate, 
black brown, brownish black, and green- 
ish black", and we have no doubt the 
list could be considerably amplified, 
though the above should be sufficient 
for the most exacting of specialists. 
The catalogue gives two distinct sorts 
of paper--laid and wove--for all three 
values, with a sub-variety of the latter, 
designated "thin", for the 3d and 6d de- 
nominations. But specialists are not 
satisfied with this meagre classification 
and recognise numerous other varieties 
such as trick white laid, soft white 
wove, thin and thick grayish, thick hard, 
thick soft, ribbed, etc. Mr. D. A. King, 
in his article in the Monthly Journal, 
says, "There are fourteen varieties that 
we are able to distinguish", and he gives 
a general classification of their charac- 
teristics as follows :- 
Series I, II, IV and V.---The tex- 
ture of these papers is virtually the 
same, and it is indeed often difficult, 
particularly in the case of the 6d, to 

distinguish between the laid and wove 
papers. The lines in the laid paper 
are of a most peculiar character, and 
cannot, as a rule, be brought fairly 
out by holding the stamp between 
one's eyes and the light. The best 
way to test these two papers is to lay 
the stamps, face down, on a black 
surface, and let the light strike them 
at about an angle of fifteen degrees, 
when the laid lines are brought most 
plainly into view. It is necessary, 
however, to place the specimens so 
that the light will strike them par- 
allel to their length, as the laid lines 
run horizontally in the 3d, and verti- 
cally in the 6d and 12d. 
Series III.--This is an entirely dif- 
ferent paper to those mentioned above. 
The laid lines are most distinct, while 
the paper is of a different texture and 
color from the regular gray shade. 
Series VI.--The paper of this series 
is almost as thick as that employed 
for series XII. There is a vast dif- 
ference, however, in its appearance, as 
the paper of series VI. is much hard- 
er than that of series XII. It feels 
greasy when rubbed between the 
thumb and finger, and the color of the 
paper is distinctly different from that 
shown by series XII. 
Series VII, VIII and IX.--We are 
able to divide the thin-ribbed papers 
into three varieties, which the descrip- 
tion plainly indicates. They are very 
distinct, and can be distinguished 
by a moment's inspection without 
Series X.--This is a very peculiar 
sort of paper, which is quite fragile, 
and will not bear much handling. It 
is quite as soft as that of series VII. 
Series XI.---This paper is also, of a 
peculiar texture ; the surface presents a 
sort of hairy appearance, and the qual- 
ity is better than Series X, although 
not as tough as series XII. 
Series XII and XIII.--This paper 
presents, even when looking at the 
face of the specimens, so entirely dif- 
ferent an appearance to that employed 
in any of the other series, that a ref- 
erence to the back is hardly neces- 
sary. It is found in two thicknesses, 
which have the same appearance, and 
seems to have been employed for all 
the values except the 12d. 
Series XIV.--We are surprised that 
this variety has hitherto escaped no- 
tice. It is so distinct, both in paper 
and color, from any of the other 6d 
stamps. It has only been found in 
shades of a peculiarly brownish purple 
which is a color entirely different 


from that presented by specimens on 
any other of the papers, employed. 
It is an exceedingly rare variety. 
It would indeed be a task for the 
most intrepid of specialists to try and 
complete his Canadian stamps on such 
ambitious lines, to say nothing of ac- 
quiring the ingenuity necessary to dif- 
ferentiate between them. Their phila- 
telic importance is, in our humble opin- 
ion, not a matter of very great conse- 
quence. At that period, hand-made 
paper was still being used to a very 
large extent and even machine-made 
paper was not manufactured with the 
nicety of standardisation that is pos- 
sible with the improved machinery of 
to-day. Consequently, the sheets of 
paper, even in such a small commercial 
quantity as a ream, would generally 
show considerable variation in texture. 
Thin and thick sheets were frequently 
mixed to obtain the necessary weight 
per reana specified iu any particular 
grade of paper. No particular quality 
of paper was, apparently, specified for 
the manufacture of these stamps, and 
so long as it looked much about the 
same it is very obvious the printers 
made no particular effort to maintain an 
exact standard. It is even questionable 
that the wove and laid varieties mark 
distinct consignments or printings of 
the stamps. Indeed, so far as the 12d is 
concerned at any rate, both varieties 
must have been included in the same 
consignment. But, more serious still, 
from the point of view of those col- 
lectors who consider the wove and laid 
papers should be treated as major va- 
rieties, Mr. King admits that "the lines 
in the laid paper are of a most peculiar 
character" and that "it is often difficult 
to distinguish between the laid and the 
wove papers", while Mr. Howes states, 
"It happens sometimes that it is quite 
difficult to distinguish the laid paper, a 
very careful scrutiny or even the ex- 
treme resort to the benzine cup being 
necessary to bring out the watermarked 
lines, and perhaps then only in a half 
suspicious way." Writing in the Can- 
ada Stamp Sheet (Vol. IV, page 142), 
concerning the 12d value, Mr. John N. 
Luff stated, "It is my opinion that both 
the wove and laid papers are quite 
genuine and I think it is possible that 
both varieties might occur though there 
was only one lot sent out by the print- 
ers. It does not, of course, follow that 
the entire batch was printed on the 
same day or that two varieties of paper 
may not have been used. The early 
printers were not always very particu- 
lar about their paper, provided it was 

somewhat alike in a general way. Some 
collectors claim that laid paper is often 
of such nature that the lines do not 
show in some parts of the sheet, and I 
believe there is evidence to support this 
It is quite within the bounds of pos- 
sibility that the paper generally used 
for these stamp.s was intended to be 
what is known as "wove" to the trade, 
and that the "laid lines" originated in a 
purely accidental manner and are rather 
on the order of the "laid paper" va- 
rieties found in connection with the 
first 8c and 12c stamps of Sarawak. 
In short, it is probable that in some 
sheets at any rate the laid lines showed 
only in part. At best, therefore, it 
would appear that the "wove" is but a 
minor variety of the "laid" or vice 
versa, and while both varieties, as well 
as other varieties easily distinguished, 
such as the very thin and very thick, 
are of interest to specialists, they 
throw no light whatsoever on the his- 
tory of the stamps, and do not, from 
all the available facts, represent sepa- 
rate printings, so that their philatelic 
importance (aside from comparative 
rarity as minor varieties, with its 
accompanying variation in monetary 
worth) is not of a particularly high 
One peculiarity resulting from the 
use of papers of such varying quality is 
an apparent difference in the size of 
stamps of the same denomination. For 
instance, the stamps on the thinner 
kinds of paper generally measure 22 x 
18 ram., while those on thicker paper 
measure 22 x 17 ram. and papers of 
other thicknesses provide still other 
measurements. These differences in size 
(fairly considerable in relation to the 
comparatively small area of a postage 
stamp) proved very puzzling to col- 
lectors of twenty years or so ago for, 
though it was felt that the stamps came 
from the same plates, it was at the 
same time found impossible to account 
for such varieties, except on the hy- 
pothesis that all the impressions of the 
plate were not all applied alike or that the 
hardening of the plates before printing 
resulted in contraction in parts with a 
consequent variation in the size of dif- 
ferent impressions. The same sorts of 
varieties have been noticed in many 
other stamps printed by the line en- 
graved process, notably in such stamps 
as the "pence" Ceylons, and proper in- 
vestigation finally proved beyond a 
shadow of doubt that these differences 
in size were due to nothing more than 
uneven contraction of the paper after 

16 It must be understood that 
m printing stamps by the line-engraved 
method the paper usually has to be 
slightly wetted (this was an invariable 
rule at the time these early Canada 
stamps were printed) and it can be 
easily seen that the wetting would have 
quite different results on different quali- 
ties of paper. Some would be more ab- 
sorbent than others and would stretch 
while damp and contract again when 
drying. The amount of wetting admin- 
istered, would, also, result in differences 
even m the same quality of paper. 
These variations in the size of the de- 
sign, therefore, while interesting in 
themselves as examples of paper va- 
garies, are of little, if any, philatelic 
Bi-sected stamps were not used in 
Canada to auything like the same extent 
that similar varieties were used in the 
other British North American provinces. 
The 6d is catalogued as having been 
divided diagonally and the halves used 
as 3d stamps, though there can have 
been uo real necessity for such bi-sec- 
tion. A bi-sected stamp of quite an- 
other character was mentioned in the 
Monthly Journal for April, 1898, as fol- 
lows :- 
The Post ONce describes a so- 
called "split provisional" of the early 
3d stamp, which is described as con- 
sisting of one and a half of the un- 
perforated 3d on wove, upon an entire 
envelope postmarked "Port Hope, 
July 16th, 185'5, Canada, Paid 10c." 
Our contemporary does not appear to 
perceive that the postmark plainly in- 
dicates that the supposed half stamp 
is really only a badly cut copy; the 3d 
of Canada passed for 5 cents, and as 
this letter is plainly marked "Paid 
10c", the stamps upon it evidently 
passed as two 3d, not as one and a 
half, which would have corresponded 
to no rate of postage. 
The same journal, two months later, 
made more extended reference to this 
variety and while its bona-tides as a 
"split" is established its use as a half 
stamp is as much a mystery as ever. 
We cannot do better than give the 
paragraph in full:- 
In the New Issues column of our 
number for April, we called in ques- 
tion the character of a supposed 
"split" three pence stamp of Canada, 
which had been chronicled in the 
Post ONce, New York. In reply to 


our criticism, Messrs. Morgenthau & 
Co., the publishers of that magazine, 
have most kindly forwarded to us the 
letter bearing the divided stamp, and 
have requested our opinion upon it. 
The specimen is such a curious one 
and presents, we think, such a puzzle 
for philatelists, that we have taken 
the liberty--which we hope its owner 
will pardon--of having a photographic 
block made from it, and we give a 
full size illustration, showing both the 
stamps and the postmarks, herewith. 
As our readers may perceive, we were 
quite wrong in suggesting that the 
"split" stamp was merely a badly cut 
copy, as it appears to have been care- 
fully bi-sected diagonally and to have 
been intended to pass as a half stamp, 
making up, with the entire stamp to 
which it is attached, a rate of 4d. 
If this were all, though the specimen 
would be a great rarity--indeed, we 
believe it to be unique--it would not 
be necessarily a great puzzle to us. 
It is true that we do not know of any 
4d rate in Canada, and there never 
was a 4d stamp in use there; but 
still, such a rate might have existed, 
although there was no possible means 
of making it up except by the use of 
at least three d stamps; but the 
puzzling part about this letter is that 
it is addressed from Port Hope in 
Canada to New York, the single rate 
from Canada to the United States 
was 10 cents; the letter is marked 
"CANADA P.4ID o Cts."by the side 
of the stamps, and that rate was six- 
pence in Canadian currency. The 
whole document appears to us to be 
perfectly genuine and bona-fide; we 
have examined it with a skeptical 
mind and a powerful magnifying 
glass, and we can only say that if it 
is a "fake" it is wonderfully well 
done. On the other hand, if it is 
genuine, the half stamp must have 
done duty as a whole one, because it 
certainly took two 3d stamps to make 
up the 10 cents rate. The puzzle 
remains a puzzle to us, but we are 
grateful to iessrs. Morgenthau for 
their courteous reply to what may 
have appeared a captious criticism. 
Reference List. 
Engraved and printed by Rawdon, 
Wright, Hatch & Edson, New York, 
on laid or wove paper. Imperforate. 
1. .d vermilion, Scott's No. 1 or No. 4. 
-'2. 6d violet, Scott's No. 2 or No. 5. 
. l"-d black, Scott's No. 3 or No. 6. 


central oval. The inscribed band aronnd 
this contains the words CANADA 
PACKET POSTAGE at the top, and 
SIX PENCE STERLING atthebottom, 
the two inscriptions occupying so much 
space that there was no roonifordivid- 
ing ornaments of any kind. In the 
upper and lower left hand corners is "6d 
stg." and in the right hand corners 
"7d cy." is shown. A word of explan- 
ation regarding the use of the word 
PACKET in the inscription is neces- 
sary. This does not refer to any parcel 
post (indeed, there was no parcel post 
at that period) as has sonietimes been 
erroneously asserted, but refers to the 
fast mail steamers of the day which xvere 
then known as "packets". This denom- 
ination, as shown by the extract from the 
Postmaster- General's report printed 
above, was intended for use on single 
letters sent to England via the Canadian 
This 7d stamp vas, according to Mr. 
Howes, printed in sheets of 120 arranged 
in ten horizontal rows of twelve each, 
each sheet showing the imprint of the 
maufacturers eight times on the margins 
as in the case of the values issued pre- 
vious to 1857. Only one consignment, 
consisting of 834 sheets (100,800stamps) 
was received, and as 17,670 of these were 
still on hand vhen the decimal currency 
was introduced in 1859, a simple calcu- 
lation will show that the total quantity 
issued was 82,410 stamps. 
Although there had been a real need 
for a halfpenny value since the first adhe- 
sives made their appearance in Canada-- 
as shown by several rates it was impos- 
sible to prepay in stamps without them-- 
it was not until 1857 that a stamp of this 
denomination vas placed in use. The 
followin-g circular announced their im- 
pending issue :- 
TORONTO. ISth July, 1857. 
Under the Post Office Law of last 
Session taking effect from 1st August, 
1857, Newspapers printed and pub- 
lished in Canada, and mailed direct 
from Office of Publication, xvill pass 
free of Canadian Postage. 
Periodicals so printed, published, 
and mailed when specially devoted to 
Religious and to General Education, to 
Agriculture, or Temperance, or to any 
branch of Science, will pass free from 
any one Post-Office to another within 
the Province. 
Transient and re-mailed Papers 
and Periodicals will pass by Post if 

prepaid by Postage stamp-one half- 
penny if not exceeding 3 oz. in weight, 
and 2d if over 3 oz. 
Postage Stamps of the value of one 
halfpenny each will be sold to the 
public at all the principal Pos Offices 
(including all Money Order Offices), 
with a discount of 5 per cent. upon 
purchases of not less than twenty 
stamps and will be available in pre- 
payment of Newspapers and Period- 
icals, and of Drop and Town Letters. 
R. SPrNCE. Postmaster-General. 
The Royal Philatelic Society's book 
gives the date of the above notice-- 
July 18th, 1857--as the date of issue of 
the new stamp but, as Mr. Howes ob- 
serves "it is more likely that the stamp 
was issued on 1st August, the day the 
new rates took effect." 
Although this stamp is generally con- 
ceded to be the last of the "pence" 
values to be issued, until more definite 
information regarding the date of issue 
of the 7d can be procured, this sup- 
position can rest on no more substantial 
basis than that of mere conjecture. 

The design is quite unlike that of any 
of the other values expressed in pence 
and consists of the conventional profile 
portrait of the Queen shovn on so many 
of the stamps of the British Empire, 
within an oval band inscribed CANADA 
POSTAGE, at the top, andONEHALF 
PENNY, at the bottom. There are no 
numerals or inscriptions in the corners 
but merely a plain pattern of diagonally 
crossed lines. Mr. Howes states "the 
stamp was printed in sheets of 100, ten 
rows of ten, with the right marginal 
imprints as described for the series of 
From the Postmaster-General's report 
we gather that 1,341,600 halfpenny 
stamps were received prior to October 
1st, 1857, though whether these were all 
in one consignment or not is not quite 
clear. At any rate iudging from the 
statement in the same report that "the 
Department has been led to take meas- 
ures for obtaining sheets per- 
/orated'" it would appear t'hat the above 
quantity comprised all the imperforate 


perforate varieties are all legitimate, and 
undoubtedly genuine, having been seen 
in pairs, or in single copies with mar- 
gins beyond cavil". Mr. Charles L. 
Pack writing in the London Philatelist 
regarding these varieties says :-- 
I have the lc and 5c postmarked in 
1860 and 1861 at Toronto and Pres- 
cott, Canada West. I also believe that 
these varieties were on sale at Kings- 
ton, Canada West, at about that time. 
I have also the 2c and 10c in un- 
doubtedly early used condition. 
Bisected varieties of the 5c and 10c of 
this issue are known though, as Mr. 
Howes states of these varieties, they 
"were never authorised and seldom 
used". The Philatelic Record for 
October, 1888, mentions a part of a 
cover with a 10c and half of a 5c side 
by side which were evidently used in 

prepayment of the 12r/2c rate, while Mr. 
Howes records the existence of a pair 
of the 5c used with a half stamp of the 
same denomination to make up the 12Ic 
packet rate. The same writer records a 
diagonal half of the 10c used as a 5c 
stamp from Bowmanville, Upper Cana- 
da, on February 15th, 1860. Whether 
these "splits" were the work of private 
parties or were made by postal officials 
to fill a temporary shortage of certain 
values will probably never be knovn. 
leference List. 
1859-64. Engraved and Printed by the Ameri- 
can Bank Note Co., New York. on 
white wove paper. Perforated 11. 
10. lc pink, Scott's No. 14. 
11. 2c rose, Scott's No. 18. 
12. 5c vermilion, Scott's No. 15. 
13. lOc lilac, Scott's No. lfi. 
14. lc green, Scott's No. 19. 
1;3. 17c blue, Scott's No..20. 


The steady growth of Upper Canada, 
chiefly due to immigration,, until it had 
twice the population of its sister 
Province, Lower Canada, aroused cries 
for a readjusted representation, which 
threatened the French with a hopeless 
minority in Parliament and the coun- 
try with another impasse. The federa- 
tion of all the provinces under some- 
thing like the American system was the 
only solution; and with, for the most 
part, the cordial co6peration of the mari- 
time provinces, the great scheme was 
carried through, and the new dominion 
launched in 1867. Each province re- 
tained its local autonomy and separate 
legislature under a lieutenant-governor, 
always a Canadian, nominated by the 
federal executive. To the latter was 
reserved all great affairs, such as de- 
fense, customs, Crown lands, Indians, 
and the organisation of the vast western 
territories then just beginning to open 
The famous Sir John Macdonald, the 
most illustrious of Canadian statesmen, 
was prominent in the federal movement, 
as also was Sir Charles Tupper. A final 
meeting was held in London, and early 
in 1867 the British North America Act 
was passed through the Imperial Par- 
liament. The new capital was fixed at 
Bytown, a small town up the Ottawa 
well removed from the frontier, fairlv 
central to all the provinces, and felici- 
tously rechristened Ottawa. Here were 
erected the stately houses of parliament 
for senate, commons, and the entire gov- 

First Dominion Issue. 

ernment staff, familiar to all travellers, 
and there, too, the governor-general 
of all British North America took up 
his residence, Lord Monck being the 
first to hold this high office, and Sir 
John Macdonald the first premier. 
The British North America Act, re- 
ferred to above, provided for the di- 
vision of the Dominion of Canada into 
four provinces named Ontario, Quebec, 
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and 
also made provision for the admission 
of Newfoundland, Prince Edward 
Island, British Columbia, etc., when 
such admission should be deemed ad- 
visable. The Act went into force on 
Jtfly 1st, 1867, and as a mark of the im- 
portance of this event the first day of 
July is now a national holiday known 
as "Dominion Day". 
It only remains to say that Prince 
Edward Island, British Columbia and 
Manitoba (not then organised) came 
into the federation shortly afterwards. 
One of the chief duties of the first 
Parliament, which met at Ottawa on 
November 6th, 1867, was the revision 
and consolidation of the laws of the 
various provinces now federated, and 
amongst these were, of course, the laws 
relating to the Post Office. The Act 
passed for the regulation of the postal 
service is a lengthy one and the only 
provisions of special interest to us as 
philatelists, those relating to the rates of 
postage,--are more clearly and definite- 
ly tabulated in a Department Order is- 
sued from Ottawa on March 1st, 1868, 


As soon as the total number of 
stamps mentioned in said schedule is 
issued the plates from which they will 
have been engraved will be destroyed 
iu the presence of the head and two 
officers of the department. On the 
loth of June the Post Office Depart- 
ment will proceed to supply Jubilee 
postage stamps to the principal post- 
offices in Canada, and through them 
minor post offices will obtain their 
supply until the issue is exhausted. If 
this Jubilee issue were to wholly dis- 
place the ordinary postage stamps it 
would supply the ordinary wants of 
the country for between two and three 
months, but as the use of the ordinary 
postage stamps will proceed concur- 
rently with that of the Jubilee stamps, 
it is expected that the Jubilee stamps 
will last beyond the three months. 
Inasmuch as the department is already 
receiving applications for the purchase 
of Jubilee stamps, it may be stated 
that the department will adhere to the 
established practice of supplying them 
only to postmasters, and through them 
to the public, who may purchase them 
on and after the 19th June, 1897. 
It will be noted that the Post-Office 
Department made no pretense ,about 
the matter but stated quite candidly that 
the issue would be limited and before 
very long, by means of different official 
notices and communications it was made 
quite plain that the issue was intended 
to sell and that restrictions would be 
placed on the scale of the more desirable 
values, which were issued in but small 
quantities.. With the first upply of 
these stamps sent to postmasters the fol- 
lowing circular was sent :-- 
N. B.--Requisitions for full sets of 
the Jubilee stamps will be fiilled un- 
til the issue is exhausted.--E. P. S. 
OTTAWA, June, I897. 
Sir:--I am directed by the Post- 
master-General to send you herewith 
a supply of the Jubilee stamps and lc 
post card, equal to one month's or- 
dinary requirements of your office. 
Should this quantity prove insufficient 
it will, on your requisition addressed 
to this branch, be supplemented; but 
as the Jubilee issue is limited, it 
would be necessary for you to apply 
early in order to secure further sup- 
plies of the same. 
I am also to instruct you not to 
sell any of the accompanying stamps 
or postcards before the opening of 
your office at the regular office hours 

on the 19th June instant--the eve of 
the anniversary they are intended to 
These stamps and cards are, of 
course, like the ordinary issues, to be 
sold at face value. 
I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant 
E. P. STANTON, Superintendent. 
P. S.--As there appears to be a 
somewhat general desire on the part 
of many persons to purchase, for 
souvenir purposes, complete sets of 
the Jubilee stalps, it is hoped that 
you will so manage the sale of such 
stamps that persons applying to pur- 
chase full sets may be able to get 
them.--E. P. S. 
The stamps were placed on sale 
throughout the Dominion on the morn- 
ing of Saturday, the 19th of June the 
eve of Jubilee day proper. Naturally 
there was a big rush on the part of the 
public to obtain specimens of the much 
heralded stamps and in the larger cen- 
tres the post offices vere literally be- 
sieged. Speculators tried to corner the 
c and 6c denominations, which ad- 
vance particulars had shown to be the 
most desirable of the lower values, but 
the stamps were doled out carefully and 
large orders were promptly and firmly 
refused. But though care was exercised 
the department was convinced, from the 
result of the first day's sale, that steps 
would have to be taken to further re- 
strict the sale of the desirable denomina- 
tions. The demand for the stamps at 
the chief office was so great that a cir- 
cular letter was prepared to be des- 
patched to applicants, this reading as 
follows :- 
OTTAWA, 26th June, 1897. 
Sir,--With reference to the numer- 
ous demands upon this office for the 
c and 6c Jubilee stamps, I am di- 
rected to explain that the respective 
quantities of Jubilee stamps ordered 
bear. relatively, the same proportions 
to the actual requirements of the 
Postal Service, but the tendency to ex- 
haust the HALVES and SIX'ES has 
increased to such a degree, that it has 
become necessary to restrict their sale 
to the purchasers of full sets. Hence 
I am to express the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral's regret that he is unable, having 
regard to the limited character of the 
Jubilee issue, to comply with any re- 
quests for the //c or 6c denomina- 
tion, apart from those for full sets. 
These sets mav be obtained as long as 
the series of Jubilee stamps last, but 


Ma.jesty as she appeared at the coro- 
nation, except that a coronet is sub- 
stituted for a crown. The portrait 
has been engraved from a photo pro- 
cured during the Jubilee ceremonies, 
and upon which was the Queen's own 
autograph, so that it is authentic. 
The corners of the stamp will be 
decorated with maple leaves, which 
vere pulled from maple trees on 
Parliament Hill and engraved direct- 
ly from them. Everything indeed is 
correct and up to date, and the new 
issue will reflect credit on Mr. 
Mulock's good taste. The engravers 
will take care to make this permanent 
and ordinary issue a tribute to their 
skill. The present stock of stamps 
it will take some months to exhaust, 
and not till they are done will the 
new stamps be issued. It may be 
about November of this year. 
About a month later a circular was 
addressed to postmasters announcing 
the issue of the new stamps as follows: 
Circular to Postmaster. 
The Postmaster-General has made 
arrangements for a new issue of 
postage stamps, letter cards, stamped 
envelopes, post cards, and post bands. 
These will be supplied to postmasters 
in the usual way. Postmasters are, 
however, instructed not to sell the 
stamps of any denomination of the 
new ssue until the stamps of the cor- 
resp.onding denomination of the pres- 
ent ssue are disposed of. The filling 
of requisitions by the Postage Stamp 
Branch will be regulated by the same 
principle--that is to say, no item of 
the proposed issue will be sent out 
until the corresponding item of the 
present issue has been exhausted. 
To conform to the requirements of 
the International Postal Union the 
color of the new lc stamp will be 
green and that of the 5c stamp a deep 
Deputy Postmaster-General. 
Post-Office Department, Canada. 
OTTAWA, 25th October, 1897. 
The Postmaster-General's Report for 
1897, issued after the stamps had made 
their appearance, also refers to the new 
issue and to add completeness to our 
history we extract the following:- 
Owing to the change of contract for 
the manufacture and supply of post- 
age stamps, a new series of stamps 
became necessary at the beginning of 
the present fiscal year. Nev stamps 
ranging in value from the c to the 

10c denomination (inclusive) were 
printed, and the first supplies thereof 
sent out to postmasters as the cor- 
responding denominations of the old 
stamps became exhausted. A con- 
siderable quantity of the higher values 
of that series (15 cents, 20 cents and 
50 cents) remaining over from the 
late contract, these three stamps con- 
tinued to be issued, so that the de- 
partmeut, previous to the introduction 
of the same denominations in the new 
series, might, in accordance with the 
universal practice, dispose of the old 
stamps in each case, before issuing 
any of the new. The design of the 
new stamps is of a uniform character, 
and consists of an engraved copy (re- 
duced) of an authorized photograph 
of Her Majesty taken during the 
Diamond Jubilee year. This, placed 
within an oval bearing the usual in- 
scriptions, is euclosed within a rec- 
tangular frame, a l:lap/e leaf on a 
lined ground occupying each of the 
triangular spaces between the two 
frames. To conform to the regula- 
tions of the Universal Postal Union, 
the color of the new 1 cent stamp is 
green, and that of the 5 cents a deep 
blue. This necessitated corresponding 
changes in the colors of the other 
stamps of the new series; for ex- 
ample, purple instead of green being 
selected for the 2 cent denomination, 
and orange instead of slate for the 8 
The first denomination of the new 
series--the  cent--was placed on sale 
on November 9th, 1897. About the end 
of the same month the 6c made its ap- 
pearance, and this was quickly followed 
by the lc, 2c, 5c and 8c in December. 
The 3c and 10c were issued early in 
January, 1898, so that official instruc- 
tions that the new stamps were not to 
be issued until the supplies of the old 
issue were exhausted were fully carried 
out. though all values were on sale 
within the space of about three months. 

The design of the new stamps is at 
once simple and effective. In the cen- 
tral oval is a three-quarter face portrait 
of Her Majesty, with head to left, 
which was copied from a photograph 


were necessary before the stamps were 
completed and, as may readily be under- 
stood, a three color process in such a 
slnall compass made exact register a 
matter of difficulty. Thus ou many 
stamps portions of the Empire are 
found much out of place, sometimes 
wandering into the sea and sometimes 
encroaching in an altogether too famil- 
iar manner on their neighbours. The 
new stamps came in for much criticism, 
of which the following extract from the 
Monthly Journal for January, 1899, is a 
fair sample :- 
It is not quite an occasion for cap- 
tious criticism, and when we get a 
beautiful colored map of the world 
for a penny perhaps we ought not to 
criticise; hut we cannot think that the 
design is a very appropriate one for 
a postage stamp. The blobs of red 
are not always quile correctly placed; 
xve have even heard of cases in which 
a little irregularity of "register" has re- 
sulted in the annexation of the greater 
part of the United States. while Eng- 
land invaded France, and the Cape of 
Good Hope went out to. sea! 
The Canadian newspapers are not 
quite happy about it, but that is natu- 
ral, as they are to pay extra ,postage 
in future to make up any deficiency 
in the hudget caused by the reduction 
iu the Imperial rate; we hear that 
even a Ministerial organ at Ontario 
complains that the new stamp is too 
large to lick aud too small for wall 
paper! Some people are never satis- 
The color choseu for the sea portion 
of the map was lavender at first, but 
as this was not .considered altogether 
appropriate it xvas soon afterwards 
changed to sea-green. In addition to 
these two tints it also comes in a very 
pronounced blue. 
Tile line-engraved plates from which 
the black portion of the design was 
winted have four marginal imprints 
consisting of AMERICAN BANK 
NOTE CO. OTTAWA in Roman capi- 
tals  ram. high, the whole inscription 
being 29 ram. long. These are placed 
above the third and eighth stamps of 
the top row and below the correspond- 
ing stamps of the bottom row. In ad- 
dition a plate nuinber, in hair-line 
figures about 4 ram. high, is shown 

above the division between the two 
central stanps of the top row, these 
figures being placed higher on the mar- 
gin than the imprints. Mr. Howes tells 
us that plates 1, , 3, and 5 are known 
but that plate 4 does not seem to have 
been recorded though, presumably, it 
exists. All four plates are known with 
the lavender sea and this is known to 
indicate the first printings, it would 
appear that all the plates were at press 
The late Mr. H. L. Ewen wrote an 
exhaustive article on the numerous va- 
rieties of this stamp but as most of 
these were simply due to errors of reg- 
ister their philatelic importance is slight. 
One variety, however, which is constant 
is worthy of note. In this two small 
dots representing two islands in mid- 
pacific are shown side by side instead of 
one above the other as on the nornal 
stamps. Mr. Ewen also referred to a 
slight retouching of one of the plates, 
ViZ. :- 
Readers will have noted that the 
stamps are each surrounded by what 
appears to be a rope. On the sheet 
of plate 3 before us, the outer edge 
of this rope on the stamps at the end 
of each rov (right hand side of each 
sheet) has worn away and has been 
replaced by a straight line engraved 
on the plate, except ou stamp No. 8o, 
which still shows the very defective 
nature of the rope.  
Mr. Howes states that the stamp, with 
all three colors for tile sea, is known 
How many vere issued is not known 
for certain as these Imperial stamps 
were reckoned together with the ordi- 
nary 2c in the postal accounts but ac- 
cording to the London Philatelist the 
total issue was about sixteen millions. 
In concluding this chapter we have only 
to add that the cost of nanufacturing 
the stamps, on account of the three pro- 
cesses necessary, was the relatively 
high one of 45 cents per thousand. 
Reference List. 
Xmas, 1898. Engraved and trinted by the 
American Bank Note Co., Ottawa. 
Unwatermarked. terf. 12. 
6.q. 2c black, lavender and red, Scott's No. 
kq. 2c black, green and red. 
70. 2c black, blue and red, Scott's No. 

CAwVa XVII.- The "2 Cents" Provisionals. 

One result of the Imperial Conference 
on Postal Rates held in London, in ad- 
dition to the inauguration of Imperial 

Penny Postage, was to revive the agita- 
tion for the reduction of the domestic 
rate on postage in Canada from 3c to 2c 


on letters weighing one ounce or less. 
Indeed just prior to this Convention a 
bill in amendment of the Post Office Act 
had been assented to by Parliament 
under which it was agreed the reduced 
rate of postage should prevail, but no 
immediate steps were taken to enforce 
the reduction, it being left to the Gov- 
ernor General to name a date when the 
change should take effect. The estab- 
lishment of hnperial Penny Postage, 
however, brought matters to a head, for 
it was a ridiculous state of affairs under 
which a charge of .c had to be levied in 
carrying a letter from one town to 
another in Canada while 2c would carry 
a similar letter (if under half an ounce 
in weight) to any point in the British 
Isles. Consequently the Governor Gen- 
eral named New Year's Day as the date 
when the reduced rate of domestic post- 
age should come into force as shown by 
the following "Order in Council" :-- 
Posa" OvvIcE DAXTrtENT. 
By Proclamation dated the 2uth 
day of December, 1808, in virtue of 
the Act further to amend the Post 
Office Act (61 Victoria, Chapter 20) 
and of an Order in Council in ac- 
cordance therewith, it was declared 
that the postage rate payable on all 
letters originating in and transmitted 
by post for any distance in Canada 
for delivery in Canada, should be one 
uniform rate of two cents per ounce 
weight, from the 1st January, 1899. 
The immediate effect of this change 
of rates was a vast increase in the de- 
mand for 2c stamps and a correspond- 
ing decrease in the use of the 3c. Also, 
to fall in line with Postal Union re- 
quirements a change of color wa 
necessary, but this did not take place 
at once, the postal authorities preferring 
to follow their usual precedent of using 
up the old stamps first. 
The 3c, which had been printed in 
large quantities, moved so slowly that 
the Post-Office Department decided 
that the only way the stock could be 
used up within a reasonable time would 
be to reduce the stamps to the value of 
2c by means of a surcharge. This in- 
tention, as well as a change in the color 
of the regular 2c stamps, was set forth 
in a circular issued on July 1st, 1899, 
from which we extract the following:- 
Owing to the reduction in the Do- 
mestic letter rate of postage, the is- 
sue of the 3c letter-card, the 3c 
stamped envelope, and the 3c postage 
stamp from the Department has 
ceased. Any unused 3c letter-cards, 
3c stamped envelopes or 3c stamps, 

still extant, will, however, continue 
available for postal purposes, or may 
be exchanged at any Post Office, at 
their full face value, for postage 
stamps of other denominations. 
The color of the Domestic-rate 
postage stamp, as prescribed by the 
Universal Postal Union, is red, and it 
is intended to discontinue the issue of 
the ordinary two-cents purple colored 
stamps as soon as the present supply 
on hand is exhausted. This will be 
about the 20th July, 1899. Thereafter 
the Department will issue two cents 
stamps in red, first, however, sur- 
charging down to two cents the unis- 
sued remnant of the three cents 
stamps in red, now in the possession 
of the Department, and as soon as 
the supply of such surcharged threes 
is exhausted, the issue of two cents 
stamps in red will begin. The sur- 
charged stamps will be issued to Post- 
masters as 2c postage stamps and be 
recognised as postage stamps of that 
The official estimate of the time the 
then existing stock of 2c purple stamps 
would last was not far wrong for on 
July 20th the first of the surcharged 
labels were issued. The surcharge fol- 
lows a somewhat peculiar arrangement 
the numeral "2" and "S" of CENTS 
being larger than the rest of the in- 
scription, which is flat at the bottom and 
concave at the top. This distinctive 
type is said to have been adopted to 
make counterfeiting difficult, though it 
is hardly likely anyone xvould have re- 
duced a 3c stamp to the value of 2c 
with the idea of defrauding the Govern- 
ment! Evidently the inscription was 
specially engraved and from it a plate 
was constructed so that a sheet of one 
hundred stamps could be overprinted at 
one operation. Some little variation will 
be found in the thickness of the type 
of the surcharge though whether this is 
due to the use of more than one plate 
or simply to overinking or wear is a 
doubtful matter. The normal position 
of the surcharge is horizontally across 
the bottom of the stamps but owing to 
poor register it is sometimes found 
much out of position, and specimens 
with the overprint across the centre of 
the labels have been recorded. 
The surcharge vas, at first, applied 
only to the 3c stamps of the numeral 
type but it was soon decided to also use 
up the unissued remainders of the 3c 
"maple-leaf" design by surcharging 
them in "the same manner. These 
stamps were first issued on August 8th. 
Both varieties are known with inverted 


These have happily been sur- 
mounted, and nov that the issue is 
an accomplished fact it is with much 
gratification that we illustrate the de- 
sign of the new stamp, our illustra- 
tion, prepared some time back, being 
taken from a proof from the steel 
die engraved by Messrs. Perkins, 
Bacon & Co., of London, and used in 
the manufacture of the plates of the 
several values issued by the Canadian 
postal authorities on the 1st instant. 
By comparing our illustration with the 
stamp as issued it will be seen that 
the contractors or the postal authori- 
ties have made some alterations in the 
design, which, in our judgment, are 
by no means improvements. The 
leaves in the lower corners have been 
redrawn on a slnallcr scale, and hardly 
impinge upon the frame; their draw- 
ing is vastly inferior, and the grace- 
ful effect of the brokeu circle is lost. 
The nmnerals of value are in color on 
a white ground reversing the original 
design, the labels being larger and the 
ligures taller and thinuer, this also 
detracting naterially from the charm- 
ing homogenity of the stmnp as first 
proposed. The greatest alteration, 
and the worst, is the substitution of 
heavy diagonal lines for horizontal 
ones in the background. The latter 
were finely drawn and delicately 
shaded, leaving the King's Head in 
clear outline, and [ by the dark 
oval band containing the inscriptions. 
The background and frmne no longer 
present this artistic effect, and the 
whole design materially suffers there- 
The circumstances connected with 
the inception of the issue are as grati- 
fying as they are novel, and viil be 
hailed with acclamation by the Phila- 
telists of the British Empire. 
The Postmaster of Canada, Sir Wil- 
liana Mulock, being one of the many 
distinguished visitors to this country 
during the Coronation festivities, took 
the opportunity afforded by his visit 
of approaching the Prince of Wales, 
and of meeting His Royal Highness's 
suggestions and advice in the prepara- 
tion of a new die for the Canadian 
stamps. The Prince, with his charac- 
teristic energy and courtesy, cheer- 
fully undertook the task. and it will be 
seen from our illustration with abso- 
lute and conspicuous success. H.R. 
H. wisely decided, in the first instance, 
that it is advisable to have some con- 
tinuity of design in succeeding issues. 
and therefore adopted the frame and 
groundwork of the then current 
stamps as a basis. In selecting a por- 

trait of llis Majesty the Prince de- 
cided to rely upon a photograph 
giving a true likeness of the King as 
we know him. in lieu of an idealised 
representation by an artist. The photo- 
graph eventually chosen, with the full 
approval of His Majesty, was one 
taken shortly before the Coronation. 
The likeness is undoubtedly what is 
termed a speaking one, and with the 
addition of the Coronation robes rep- 
resents as faithful and as pleasing a 
picture of the King, at the time of his 
accession to the throne, as it is pos- 
sible to find. The introduction of the 
Tudor crowns in the upper angles, 
which was another of the Prince's 
innovations, obviates the difficulty that 
has so often made "the head that 
vears a crown" lie "uneasy" on a 
postage stamp. These emblems of 
sovereignty, taken in conjunction with 
the Canadian maple leaves in the 
lower angles, completes a design that 
for harmony, boldness and simplicity 
has assuredly not been excelled by 
any hitherto issued stamps of the 
British Empire. It is palpable, on 
analysing the stamp, (1) that the at- 
tractiveness of the design has in no 
way been allowed to militate against 
its utility, for the country of origin 
and denomination are clearly ex- 
pressed; () that the boldness of the 
design has not been detracted from 
(as is so often the case) by super- 
fluous ornamentation, and that the 
design has been artistically balanced 
by the introduction of the right-sied 
portrait and the proper treatment of 
light and shade. 
These stamps were. of course, printed 
from line-engraved plates like those of 
the preceding issues, and the same sheet 
arrangement of 100 stamps in ten rows 
of ten each was followed. The marginal 
imprint sboxvn on the top margin of 
each sheet is like that shown on the 
Queen's head sheets and the plates for 
each value vere numbered from 1 up- 
wards. Mr. Howes records the follow- 
ing plates as having been used up to 
December, 1910 :-- 
1 cent--Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
13, 14, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 34, 47, 48, 
51, 52, 55, 58. 
2 cents--Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 
11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 
21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 
35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 47, 53, 54, 55, 
56, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 67, 68, 69, 70, 
71, 72, 73, 74, 78. 
5 cents--Nos. 1, 2. 
7 cents--No. 1. 
10 cents--Nos. 1, 2. 

course on the part of the holders. 
The description of "printer's waste" 
seems to be correct and the inference 
is that the stamps never bad been 
gummed. They belong to that class of 
curiosities that appeal strongly to the 
specialist, but which the ordinary col- 
lector regards as something apart 
from his collecting policy. 
The stamps did not go back to Ot- 
tawa, and the postal authorities there 
annoyed, doubtless righteously, that such 
things should escape from their well 
regulated printing establishment went to 
considerable trouble to make the ira- 
perforates of small monetary value. 
"]'he following paragraph, written by a 
correspondent of the WEErc'z, was the 
first inkling collectors had that the de- 
partment had thought any more of the 
matter :- 
It may be of interest to know tbat 
the last supplement to the Canadian 
Post Office Guide contains the fol- 
lowing: "In view of representations 
which have been made to the Depart- 
ment, it has been decided to permit 
the sale of the P--cent denomination of 
Canadian postage stamps of the cur- 
rent issue, in sheets of 100, without the 
tsual perforation.'" I at once asked 
for a sheet of the -cent, and inci- 
dentally said I would take a sheet of 
the other denominations if available. 
A reply came to-day informing me 
that only the :-cent would be avail- 
able, and then not for some time, as 
the department intends to make a 
separate printing of these stamps, to 
supply whatever demand may occur. 
It was stipulated that applications for 
these imperforate stamps should be 
made to the Postmaster at Ottawa. 
When the sheets of these stamps came 
into collectors' hands it was found they 
had been printed from piates 1. and 14- 
the same as those from which the origin- 
ally chronicled "errors" were printed. It is 
obvious that the Department issued 
these stamps simply to "get back" at 
the holder of the sheet so unfortunately 
blown or thrown out of the printing- 
office window in 1906. That they were 
not intended for use in mailing machines 
seems amply proved from the fact that 
none of the 2c stamps of the present 
issue have been issued in imperforate 
No c value was issued in the King 
Edward design although the Queen's 
head stamp of that denomination con- 
tinued in use until 1909. This value was 
primarily intended for use in prepaying 
the postage on transient newspapers, 
but for many years the number sold to 

the public was out of all proportion to 
those which could have been required 
for its legitimate use. There is no doubt 
that large quantities were purchased by 
stamp dealers for wholesaling to packet 
makers and dealers in the cheap ap- 
proval sheet business and, undoubtedly, 
stamp collectors in Canada usually pre- 
ferred to use four c stamps on their 
letters rather than an ordinary c one. 
This excessive demand for the c re- 
sulted in the Post Office Department 
issuing the following circular to Post- 
masters in 190 :- 
The attention of postmasters is 
drawn to the fact that the postal 
necessity for the c stamp, as such, 
is now confined to one purpose--pre- 
payment of newspapers and periodicals 
posted singly, and weighing not more 
than one ounce each. As publications 
of the kind referred to must, in the 
nature of things, be few, and as in the 
case of their being mailed to sub- 
scribers by the office of publication, 
the bulk rate of postage would be 
far cheaper and more convenient for 
the publisher, the demand for the c 
stamp throughout the Dominion must 
be appreciably diminished as a result 
of this restriction of its use. While, 
of course, any number of c stamps 
on an article of correspondence will 
be recognized to the full extent of their 
aggregate face value, it is not the 
wish of the Department to supply 
them except for the sole specific pur- 
pose above mentioned, and an intima- 
tion to that effect should be given by 
postmasters to patrons of their office 
who are in the habit of buying -cent 
stamps for other postal purposes. 
This circular had quite an effect on the 
use of c stamps, for only about one- 
third as many were used in the year 
following the publication of he circular. 
Finally, on May 19th, 1909, the Post 
Office Act was amended so that the 
special rate on newspapers was repealed 
and the minimum postage on any single 
piece of mail became lc. This did away 
for the necessity of c stamps and, of 
course, discounted any further possi- 
bility of the value being included in the 
King's head series. 
Reference List. 
190-8. Die engraved by Perkins, Bacon & 
Co., London. Plates prepared and 
stamps printed by the American 
Bank Note Co., Ottawa. No. wink. 
Perf. 1. 
78. lc green, Scott's No. 
79. -% carmine, Scott's No..qO. 
80. 5c blue on blue, Scott's No. 91. 
S1. 7c olive-bistre, Scott's No. 92. 
8-'2. 10c brown lilac, Scott's No. 
8.']. 90c olive-green. No. 94. 
84. 0c purple, No. 9. 

scenes, portraits, etc. The description 
of each denomination is as follows:-- 
I lalf-cent, grey, picture of the Prince 
and Princess of Wales. 
One-cent, green, portraits of Cham- 
plain and Cartier. 
Two-cent, red, King Edward and 
Queen Alexandria. 
Five-cent, blue, representation of 
L'Habitation de Quebec. 
Seven-cent, yellow, pictures of Mont- 
calm and Wolfe. 
Ten-cent, mauve, picture of Quebec 
in 1700. 
Fifteen-cent. orange, picture of the 
Parliament of the West in the old 
Twenty-cent, green, picture of a 
courier du sois with Indians. 
The stamps were placed ou sale on 
July 16th and, as will be noted from our 
illustrations, they are as described 
above except that the 15c does not have 
Champlain's name on it as stated in the 
first quotation, and that the 15c and 20c 
are incorrectly described in the second 
despatch. The stamps are of similar 
shape to the special series issued in 
Diamond Jubilee year though they are 
a trifle larger--1 ram. taller and nearly 
. ram. longer. "Uhe Postmaster-Gen- 
eral's Report for 1909 referred to this 
issue as follows:- 
To meet what appeared to be a 
general wish a special series of post- 
age stamps, which has come to lye 
known as the Tercentenary Series, 
was introduced as a feature of the 
celebration in July, 1908, of the three 
hundredth anniversary of the found- 
ing of Quebec by (hamplain. The 
first supply of these stamps was sent 
out to Postmasters about the rriddle 
of that month, and was on sale to the 
public by the time His Royal Highness, 
the Prince of Wales, reached Quebec 
for the celebration. The demand for 
the new stamps was extraordinary, 
and for the better part of a month 
was steadily kept up. The interest 
taken in them was, in no small meas- 
ure, due to tile historic associations 
with vhich in design they were so 
happily linked, the subjects depicted 
in the several denominations of the 
series being in variety and appro- 
priateness admirably adapted to the 
end in view,--popular recognition of 
an epoch-making event. 
Except as regards the Postal Union 
denominations of lc, 2c and 5c the 
colors chosen for the xtamps of this 
series do not correspond vith those of 
lhe regular set. The stamps were pro- 

duced by the line-engraved process, 
which has long been the standard 
method of production for Canada's 
stamps, and as usual they were issued 
in sheets of one hundred in ten rows 
of ten. It seems probable that the plates 
for the 2c, and possibly for the lc also, 
consisted of two panes of 100 stamps 
each placed one above the other. This 
seems to be proved from the fact that, 
whereas cm most sheets the imprint 
"'OTT/WA" followed by the llate 
number, appears in the ceutre of tile 
top margin, sheets of the 2c are known 
with the imp.rint in the centre of the 
bottom margin, and in the case of 
plates 3 and 4 both imprint and num- 
ber are inverted. The inversion on 
these particular plates was, probably, 
purely accidental. But though these 
large plates were used the stamps were 
always issued in the usual sheet size 
of 100. The following plates are 
known to have been used :-- 
c dark bron, No. 1. 
lc blue-green, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
2c carmine, Nos. 1, 2, 3. 4. 
5c dark blue, Nos. 1, 2. 
7c olive-green, No. 1. 
10c dark violet, No. 1. 
15c red-orange, No. 1. 
20c yellow brown, No. 1. 
The stamps were all printed on the 
usual white wove paper and were per- 
forated 12, though specimens of the 2c 
are known entirely imperforate. Fairly 
well marked shades may lye found in 
connection with the lc and 2c denomi- 
nations but the other values show but 
very slight differences. 
3he royal portraits on the c and 2c 


but finally he was beseiged in Quebec 
by General Wolfe, at the head of 
30,000 men. He was obliged to give 
battle under unequal conditions, and 
on September 13th was mortally 
wounded at the battle of the Heights 
of Abraham and died two davs later. 
The victorious English gene-ral was 
also killed in the same battle. 
The names of both these leaders, 
enemies though they were, have 
graven themselves inseparably on the 
memories of the inhabitants of Que- 
hec. In 1827 the Governor of 
Canada, Lord Dalhousie, erected a 
marble monument to their memory, 
on which is a Latin inscription, which 
may be rendered freely thus :- 
"Their courage caused their death. 
History pratses them both. 
Posterity erects this monument to 
their honour." 
No advauce informatiou was pub- 
lished as to the numbers printed of the 
several values in the series, as in the 
case of the Jubilee set, so that little 
attempt at cornering any particular 
values was made by speculators. True, 
large quantities of the c value were 
bought up by people who imagined it 
would be as rare as the corresponding 
value of the Jubilee stamps, but as 
there were two million of these they 
did not turn out to be the gold-mine it 
was fondly imagined they would. By 
September, 1908, all values except the 
10c, 15c and 20c had been exhausted 
and by the end of October these three 
values were sold out as well. The 
numbers issued were later given out by 
the Postmaster-General in ans,aer to 
two questions propounded to him in the 
House of Commons by Mr. Perley, a 
member. The Canadian Hansard gives 
this data as follows:-- 
l.--Vhat was the total arnouut re- 
ceived by the Post Office Departrnent 
from the sale of the special Tercen- 
tenary stamps? 2.--What part of 
this sum would probably have been 
received as ordinary revenue if there 
had been no special issue of starnps? 
To these questions the Hon. Ru- 
dolphe Lernieux, Postmaster-General. 
responded: The following was the 
issue to Postmasters of the Tercen- 
tenary postage starnps: 
Denonlillations. Quantities. Value. 

 cent 2,0.00,000 $10,000 
1 cent 22,530,000 $225,300 
2 cent 35,100,000 $702,000 
5 cent 1,200,000 $60,000 
7 cent 700,000 $49,000 
10 cent 500,000 $50,000 
15 cent 300,000 $45,000 
20 cent 304,200 $60,840 


62,6.24.200 $1,202,140 

The department has no knowledge 
whether the stalnps in question have 
all been sold, as during their issue 
the ordinary postage stamps were also 
on sale, both issues being in use as 
preferred by the public. The pro- 
ceeds derived from the sale of stamps 
of the two issues were not kept sepa- 
rately, hut treated as arising frorn a 
common source. It is, therefore, im- 
possible to state to what extent the 
ssue of the Tercentenary postage 
stamps may have affected the ordinary 
The fact that the Prince of Wales was 
an ardent stamp collector resulted in 
the presentation to him of a specially 
mounted set as shown by the following 
paragraph from the WEEKLY :- 
AS the Prince of Wales is an en- 
thusiastic collector of stalnps, His 
Royal Highness will no doubt be very 
pleased to receive the set of the spec- 
ial tercentenary stamps which will 
he presented to him at Quebec. The 
stamps will be held in small gold 
boxes, enclosed in a handsome large 
box of Morocco leather. A second 
set accompanies the gift in a special 
gold box, on the cover of the large 
box is the Prince's crest and a gold 
plate inscribed as follows: "Set of 
Canadian postage stamps issued upon 
the occasion of the Quebec tercenten- 
ary, 1908. Presented to His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales by Hon. 
Rudolphe Lemieux, Postmaster-Gen- 
eral of Canada." Sets of these 
stamps, in boxes with appropriate 
crests and monograms, will be pre- 
sented to Earl Grey, Sir Wilfred 
Laurier and Hota. Rudolphe Lemieux. 
Reference List. 

1908. Engraved and printed by the American 
Bank Note Co., Ottawa. No wink. 
Per[. 1. 
,%5. c dark brown, Scott's No. 9;. 
86. lc blue green, Scott's No. 97. 
87. 2c carmine, Scott's No. 98. 
88. 5c dark blue, Scott's l'qo. 99. 
89. 7c olive green, Scott's 1N'o. 100. 
90. 10c dark violet, Scott's No. 101. 
91. 15c red orange, Scott's No. 102. 
92. '20c yellow brown, Scott's No. 103. 

The King George Stamps. 
On May 6th, 1910, King George V suc- 
ceeded to the throne but the Dominion 
of Canada did not take steps towards 
issuing a series of starnps hearing the 
portrait of the new rnonarch until some 
time later. The lc and 2c denominations 
were recorded in the Monthly Journal for 
Jannary, 1912, so they were doubtless on 

"Fhe Postmaster-General's Report for 
18S9, in referring to the advance in the 
registration charge, says :- 
The charge for the registration of 
a letter, parcel, book or other articles 
of mail matter was also made uni- 
form, and fixed at 5 cents for all 
classes of matter. The frequent de- 
lay cousequent upon the prepayment 
of a wrong registration fee will no 
longer take place. 
"['he removal of the printing estab- 
lishment of the British American Bank 
Note Company from Montreal to Ot- 
tawa resulted in some marked changes 
in the shades of the then current postage 
stamps as we have already shown in a 
prexuous chapter. The registration 
stamps were also affected in some de- 
gree the  cents value, iu particular, ap- 
pearing in a number of new and 
brighter tints. The ,5c appeared iu bluc- 
green--a distinct contrast from the 
green and yellow-green shades previous- 
ly current. 
In 182 some of the postage stamps, 
it will be remembered, appeared in 
sheets of 00 instead of 100 as formerly. 
About the same period new plates were 
made for the 5c registration stamp. 
these containing one hundred impres- 
sions in ten rows of ten, instead of fifty 
as hefore. 
On August 1st, 1893, a regular post- 
age stamp of the denomination of 8c 
was issued for the purpose of paying 
the postage and registratiou charge and 
the appearance of this sounded the 
death knell of the special registration 
stamps. The supplies in the hands of 
postmasters were used up and vhen ex- 
hausted no more were printed. 
Much has been written regarding the 
2c registration stamp printed in brown. 
These were origiually found at the 
Miscou Light House Post Office in New 
Brunswick and though the stamps were 
in an unmistakably dark brown shade it 
has since been satisfactorily proved that 
the change was quite accidental and that 
immersion in peroxide would restore 
them to their original color. Although 
the Postmaster of the above named of- 
rice is said to have stated that the 
stamps were in brown when he received 
them there is little doubt he must have 
been mistaken. Much the same thing 
happened in connection with the current 
six cents United States stamps at an 
office on the Pacific Coast (San Pedro). 
Some of these stamps were found in a 
distinct brown shade almost exactly 

matching that of the 4c value and 
though some local collectors had 
dreams of a rare error of color it was 
easily proved that they were simply 
Rcfercnce List. 
187-89. Engraved and printed by the British 
American Bank Note Co., Montreal 
or Ottawa. No wink. Perf. 1. 
104. 2c vermilion, Scott's Nos. 1.51 or 152. 
1o5. 5c green, Scott's No. 15:|. 
loll .'4c blte. Scott's No. 154. 


The Postage Due Stamps. 

Like most other cotmtries Canada 
managed to collect the p,}stage due on 
insufficiently prepaid mail matter for 
many years without the use of special 
stamps for the purpose. About 1906 it 
dawned on the Post Office Department 
that the use of special stamps would 
simplify matters and place the collec- 
tion of monies due on a more systematic 
basis. Consequently a circular was is- 
sued to postmasters, under date of June 
1st, 1906, advising them that postage 
due stamps would be issued and must, 
for the future, be used in collecting in- 
sufficient postage. The salient points 
from this circular are given by Mr. 
Howes as follows:-- 
Commencing on the 1st July, 1906, 
the present system of collecting un- 
paid postage will be discontinued and 
thereafter the following arrangements 
will supersede the regulations now in 
force :-- 
(1) The Department will issue a 
special stamp which wil.l be known as 
the "'POSTAGE DUE" stamp and on 
delivery of any article of mail matter 
on which unpaid or additional postage 
is to be collected the Postmaster will 
affix and cancel as ordinary stamps 
are cancelled, postage due stamps to 
the amount of the extra postage 
charged on such article. 
(2) The short paid postage must 
be collected from the addressee be- 
fore postage due stamps are affixed; 
otherwise the Postmaster is liable to 
lose the amount of such postage. 
(3) Postmasters will obtain post- 
age due stamps on requisition to the 
Departmeut but the initial supply will 
be furnished without requisition, so 
that the new system may go into 


,peration on the (late above men- 
tioned. When a uew form is ordered 
"'p,,stage due" stamps will be included 
in the printed list, but it is proposed 
to use the stock on hand at present 
which would otherwise have to be de- 
stroyed. The denominations of the 
new stamps will be 1, 2 and 5 cents. 
Iu his Report for 1906 the Post- 
master-General refers to the new inno- 
vation as follows:-- 
A system of accountiug for short 
paid postage collected by Postmasters, 
by means of special stamps known as 
"Postage Due" stamps, has been 
adopted by the Department. These 
stamps are to be affixed to shortpaid 
mail matter aud cancelled by Post- 
masters when such matter is delivered 
to the addressee, and are not to he 
used for any other purpose. The5" 
cannot be used for the paymeut of 
ordinary postage, nor are they to be 
sold to the public. 

These stamps are of special design 
and though of the same size as the 
regular postage stamps the design is 
printed the longer vay so that in gen- 
eral appearance they are greatly differ- 
ent. The design has, as its centerpiece, 
a large uncolored numeral on an eight- 
sided tablet. Above is CANADA and 
below is the word CENT while at the 
sides are elaborate scroll ornaments. 
Across the base the words POSTAGE 
DUE are shown in bold uncolored capi- 
tals while the balance of the design con- 
sists of an engine-turned groundwork. 
They are printed from line-engraved 
plates in sheets of one hundrred, as usual. 
In the centre of the top margin is the 
imprint, "'OTTAWA", followed by the 
plate number. Mr. Howes states that 
plate 1 is known for all three values 
aud plate 2 for the 2 cent only. 
Rcfercnce List. 
1906. Engraved and printed by the Ameri- 
can Bank Note Co., Ottawa. No 
wmk. Perf. 12. 
lO7. lc dull violet, Scott's No. lXt;. 
10S. 2c dull violet, Scott's No. 1"7. 
109. 5c dull violet, Scott's No. r-',q. 

Cn ^va'v.a XXXI. 
The "'Officially Sealed" Labels. 
Although "officially sealed" labels can- 
not by any stretch of the imaginati.on 
be considered as postage stamps or, m- 
deed, of having any philatelic signifi- 
cance yet they are collected by many, 
in common with adhesive registered 
labels, as having an interest owing to 
the fact that the) are visible evidence 
of one phase of the working of the post 
office. The "officially sealed" labels 
used by the Canadian Post Office seem 
to have been first recorded in the latter 
part of 1879. The first type consists of 
a rectangular label, measuring about 
252 by" 38 ram. ou which the words 
"'OFFICI-LL SEALED" are shown 
.straight across the centre. Above this. 
m a curve, is the inscription "POST 
OFFICE CANADA", while below, in a 
similar curve, is "'DEAD LETTER 
OFFICE". The border consists of a 
handsome piece of engine-turned en- 
graviug. These labels vere normally 
perforated 12 but they are also known 
entirely imperforate. Much misconcep- 
tion existed as to the use of these labels 
until Major E. B. Evans, when visiting 
Canada in 1889, took the opportunity of 
finding out exactl_v for what they were 
used. The results of his investigations 
were published in the Philatelic Record 
for November, 1889, and as the article 
is full of interest we need make no 
apology for reproducing it in ea'tenso:-- 
When I was in Canada last July I 
made special enquiries about these 
labels, as there appeared to be some 
mystery- about their use. Everyone 
agreed that they were not placed 
upon all letters opened at the Dead 
Letter Office and returned to their 
senders, and no two persons seemed 
to have quite the same theory as to 
the rules for their employ'ment or 
uon-employment in any particular 
case. Even gentlemen connected 
with the Post Office at Halifax, such 
as Mr. King and others, could give me 
no definite information. I therefore 
determined to see what I could do at 
headquarters in Ottawa. 
Fortunately. I was able, through a 
collector in an official position, to ob- 
tain an introduction to the Deputy 
Postmaster-General, who most kindl." 
gave me the following particulars. 
which show that the employment of 
the ofiqcially sealed labels is very re- 
stricted, thus accounting for their 


Letters in Cauada, as in the United 
States, very frequently have on the 
ontside the well-known notice con- 
taining the address of the seuder, and 
a request that the letter may be re- 
turned if not delivered within a cer- 
tain time. These, of course, are not 
opened at the Dead Letter Office. and 
in fact, [ think, are ordered not to 
be sent there, but are returned direct 
from the office to which they xvere 
originally addressed or from the head 
office of the district. On the other 
hand, those that have no indication 
of the address of the sender on the 
outside are sent to the Dead Letter 
Office, and there necessarily opened; 
but neither of these classes thus 
properly dealt xvith is considered to 
require the officially-sealed label. It 
is only if oue of the former class, 
having the sender's nane and address 
on the outside, is sent to the Dead 
Letter Office and there opened in 
error that the officially-scaled label is 
applied, to show that such letter has 
been opened officially, and not by any 
unauthorized person. Whether these 
pieces of gummed paper ever had a 
more extended use or not I cannot 
say, but I was assured that the above 
was the substance of the regulations 
as to their employment. 
The Deputy Postmaster-Geueral 
further stated that there had been so 
many requests for specimens of these 
labels that the Department had been 
obliged to make it a rule to turn a 
deaf ear to all of them. Iu any case 
they are not postage stamps, properly 
speaking, at all. They indicate 

neither postage paid uor postage due, 
but simply that the letters to which 
they are attached have been opened 
hy proper authority, and they at the 
same time afford a means of reclosing 
About 105 a label of new design was 
introduced, this, of course, being the 
work of the American Bank Note Com- 
pany. These are larger than their 
predecessors and are very handsome 
labels. In the centre is an excellent 
portrait of Queen Victoria, adapted 
from the "Law Stamps" of 1897. with 
"CANADA" in heavy uncolored Roman 
capitals curved above, and, at the top. 
in letters so graded that the tops form 
a straight line, while the bottoms follov 
the curve of "CANADA". Under the 
portrait the words "DEAD LETTER" 
are shown on a straight label which ex- 
tends right across the stamp, while be- 
Ioxv this is the word "OFFICE" on a 
curved tablet. The spaces at the sides 
and the bottom are filled with elaborate 
foliate ornaments and engine-turned 
work. These labels are also perfo- 
rated 19 and exist on txvo kinds of 
paper. Until about 1907 the paper was 
of a pale blue color while subsequent 
printings have been on ordinary white 
Rcercnce List. 
1879. Engraved and printed by the British 
American Bank Note Co. 
(No value) deep brown. 
1905-7. Engraved and printed by the Ameri- 
can Bank Note Co. 
t No value) black on blue paper. 
(No value) black on white paper. 

THE Ergo. 


 Special attention is paid to the Approval 
Department of my.b.usiness, which is under 
my personal supervision. 
 The most satisfactory manner in which to 
purchase stamps is from approval books when 
the collector has the opportunity of inspecting 
the specimens at his leisure. My stamps are 
all arranged in books by countries, mounted 
and arranged according to the latest edition 
of Scott's catalogue. Above each stamp the 
catalogue number and price is plainly shown 
and below my net selling price is marked. 
 These books contain unused and used 
stamps, several copies of the same variety being 
included wherever possible so that the collector 
has ample choice. All minor varieties of shades, 
watermarks, perforation, etc., are included as 
well as occasional pairs and blocks of four. 
Prices are most reasonable and average about 
half catalogue. As most of these books are of 
considerable value they can only be sent to 
collectors well known to me or to those supply- 
ing first class references. 

Sp " " 
ec  al  sts 

 A cordial invitation is extended to all 
advanced collectors and specialists to acquaint 
me of their special countries. I co.ntinually 
have rare and out-of-the-way items n stock 
and shall be glad to send particulars of these 
to interested clients. 

B. W. 
312 Washington Building,